Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review of potential therapeutic applications

Prasan R. Bhandari

Abstract


Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae), one of the best‑researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase), sulphur‑containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and
many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic
reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.
Key words: Allium sativum, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, garlic

Full Text:

PDF

References


Londhe VP, Gavasane AT, Nipate SS, Bandawane DD,

Chaudhari PD. Role of garlic (Allium Sativum) in various diseases:

An overview. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion

;1:129‑34.

Available from: http://www.longwoodherbal.org/garlic/garlic.pdf

[Last accessed on 2012 May 15]

Rivlin RS. Historical perspective on the use of garlic. J Nutr

;131:951S‑4S.

Petrovska BB, Cekovska S. Extracts from the history and medical

properties of garlic. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4(:106‑10.

Amagase H. Clarifying the real bioactive constituents of garlic.

J Nutr 2006;136:716S‑25S.

Butt MS, Sultan MT, Butt MS, Iqbal J. Garlic: Nature’s protection

against physiological threats. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49:538‑51.

Sivam GP. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial

infections by garlic. J Nutr 2001;131:1106S‑8S.

Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A. The potential role of garlic (Allium

sativum) against the multi‑drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic:

A review. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2011;47:465‑73.

Borek C. Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. J Nutr

;131:1010S‑5S.

Chen ZY, Peng C, Jiao R, Wong YM, Yang N, Huang Y.

Anti‑hypertensive nutraceuticals and functional foods. J Agric

Food Chem 2009;57:4485‑99.

Castro C, Lorenzo AG, González A, Cruzado M. Garlic

components inhibit angiotensin II‑induced cell‑cycle progression

and migration: Involvement of cell‑cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1)

and mitogen‑activated protein kinase. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010;

:781‑7.

Al‑Qattan KK, Khan I, Alnaqeeb MA, Ali M. Mechanism of garlic

(Allium sativum) induced reduction of hypertension in 2K‑1C rats:

A possible mediation of Na/H exchanger isoform‑1. Prostaglandins

Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003;69:217‑22.

Dhawan V, Jain S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low

density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential

hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 2004;266:109‑15.

Brankovic S, Radenkovic M, Kitic D, Veljkovic S, Ivetic V,

Pavlovic D, et al. Comparison of the hypotensive and bradycardic

activity of ginkgo, garlic, and onion extracts. Clin Exp Hypertens

;33:95‑9.

Asdaq SM, Inamdar MN. The potential benefits of a garlic and

hydrochlorothiazide combination as antihypertensive and

cardioprotective in rats. J Nat Med 2011;65:81‑8.

Asdaq SM, Inamdar MN. Potential of garlic and its active constituent,

S‑allyl cysteine, as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in

presence of captopril. Phytomedicine 2010;17:1016‑26.

Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP. Aged garlic extract lowers blood

pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension:

A randomised controlled trial. Maturitas 2010;67:144‑50.

Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, Fakler P, Sullivan T. Effect of garlic

on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta‑analysis. BMC

Cardiovasc Disord 2008;8:13.

Reinhart KM, Coleman CI, Teevan C, Vachhani P, White CM. Effects

of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic

hypertension: A meta‑analysis. Ann Pharmacother 2008;42:1766‑71.

Budoff M. Aged garlic extract retards progression of coronary

artery calcification. J Nutr 2006;136:741S‑4S.

Lau BH. Suppression of LDL oxidation by garlic. J Nutr

;131:985S‑8S.

Morihara N, Ide N, Weiss N. Aged garlic extract inhibits

homocysteine‑induced scavenger receptor CD36 expression and

oxidized low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol uptake in human

macrophages in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;134:711‑6.

Lei YP, Liu CT, Sheen LY, Chen HW, Lii CK. Diallyl disulfide and

diallyl trisulfide protect endothelial nitric oxide synthase against

damage by oxidized low‑density lipoprotein. Mol Nutr Food Res

;54:S42‑52.

Hui C, Like W, Yan F, Tian X, Qiuyan W, Lifeng H. S‑allyl‑L‑cysteine

sulfoxide inhibits tumor necrosis factor‑alpha induced monocyte

adhesion and intercellular cell adhesion molecule‑1 expression

in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Anat Rec (Hoboken)

;293:421‑30.

Budoff MJ, Ahmadi N, Gul KM, Liu ST, Flores FR, Tiano J, et al.

Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and

L‑arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis:

A randomized clinical trial. Prev Med 2009;49:101‑7.

Rajaram S. The effect of vegetarian diet, plant foods, and

phytochemicals on hemostasis and thrombosis. Am J Clin Nutr

;78:552S‑8S.

Rahman K. Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and

physiology. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51:1335‑44.

Mathew BC, Prasad NV, Prabodh R. Cholesterol‑lowering effect

of organosulphur compounds from garlic: A possible mechanism

of action. Kathmandu Univ Med J 2004;2:100‑2.

Kwon MJ, Song YS, Choi MS, Park SJ, Jeong KS, Song YO.

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and atherogenic

parameters in rabbits supplemented with cholesterol and garlic

powder. Life Sci 2003;72:2953‑64.

Budoff MJ, Takasu J, Flores FR, Niihara Y, Lu B, Lau BH, et al.

Inhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic

Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: A preliminary study.

Prev Med 2004;39:985‑91.

Siegel G, Walter A, Engel S, Walper A, Michel F. Pleiotropic effects

of garlic. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1999;149:217‑24.

Ahmad MS, Ahmed N. Antiglycation properties of aged garlic

extract: Possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. J Nutr

;136:796S‑799S.

Rahman K, Lowe GM. Garlic and cardiovascular disease: A critical

review. J Nutr 2006;136:736S‑740S.

Sengupta A, Ghosh S, Bhattacharjee S. Allium vegetables in

cancer prevention: An overview. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2004;

:237‑45.

Milner JA. A historical perspective on garlic and cancer. J Nutr

;131:1027S‑31S.

Herman‑Antosiewicz A, Powolny AA, Singh SV. Molecular targets

of cancer chemoprevention by garlic‑derived organosulfides. Acta

Pharmacol Sin 2007;28:1355‑64.

Mohandas KM, Desai DC. Epidemiology of digestive tract

cancers in India. V. Large and small bowel. Indian J Gastroenterol

;18:118‑21.

Ngo SN, Williams DB, Cobiac L, Head RJ. Does garlic reduce risk

of colorectal cancer? A systematic review. J Nutr 2007;137:2264‑9.

Gunadharini DN, Arunkumar A, Krishnamoorthy G, Muthuvel R,

Vijayababu MR, Kanagaraj P, et al. Antiproliferative effect of diallyl

disulfide (DADS) on prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Cell Biochem

Funct 2006;24:407‑12.

Liu Z, Li M, Chen K, Yang J, Chen R, Wang T, et al. S‑allylcysteine

induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in androgen‑independent

human prostate cancer cells. Mol Med Report 2012;5:439‑43.

Nkrumah‑Elie YM, Reuben JS, Hudson A, Taka E, Badisa R,

Ardley T, et al. Diallyl trisulfide as an inhibitor of benzo(a)

pyrene‑induced precancerous carcinogenesis in MCF‑10A cells.

Food Chem Toxicol 2012; 50:2524‑30.

Lee JE, Lee RA, Kim KH, Lee JH. Induction of apoptosis with

diallyl disulfide in AGS gastric cancer cell line. J Korean Surg Soc

;81:85‑95.

Pai MH, Kuo YH, Chiang EP, Tang FY. S‑Allylcysteine inhibits

tumour progression and the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in

a mouse xenograft model of oral cancer. Br J Nutr 2012;108:28-38.

Iciek M, Kwiecień I, Chwatko G, Sokołowska‑Jeżewicz M,

Kowalczyk‑Pachel D, Rokita H. The effects of garlic‑derived sulfur

compounds on cell proliferation, caspase 3 activity, thiol levels and

anaerobic sulfur metabolism in human hepatoblastoma HepG2

cells. Cell Biochem Funct 2012;30:198‑204.

Hassan HT. Ajoene (natural garlic compound): A new

anti‑leukaemia agent for AML therapy. Leuk Res 2004;28:667‑71.

Piasek A, Bartoszek A, Namiesnik J. Phytochemicals that

counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy.

Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2009;63:142‑58.

Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: A critical review of the

epidemiologic literature. J Nutr 2001;131:1032S‑40S.

Borek C. Garlic reduces dementia and heart‑disease risk. J Nutr

;136):810S‑12S.

Cruz C, Correa‑Rotter R, Sánchez‑González DJ, Hernández‑Pando

R, Maldonado PD, Martínez‑Martínez CM, et al. Renoprotective and

antihypertensive effects of S‑allylcysteine in 5/6 nephrectomized

rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007;293:1691‑8.

Kyo E, Uda N, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. Immunomodulatory effects

of aged garlic extract. J Nutr 2001;131:1075S‑9S.

Lamm DL, Riggs DR. Enhanced immunocompetence by garlic:

Role in bladder cancer and other malignancies. J Nutr 2001;131:

S‑70S.

Rahman K. Garlic and aging: New insights into an old remedy.

Ageing Res Rev 2003;2:39‑56.

Tattelman E. Health effects of garlic. Am Fam Physician 2005;72:103‑6.

Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res

Rev 1996;16:111‑24.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v6i2.247

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.