In vitro effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus‑veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallization

Ajij Ahmed, Nasreen Jahan, Abdul Wadud, Alia Bilal, Syeda Hajera


Background: Adiantum capillus‑veneris Linn. is widely used in the management of urolithiasis in Unani system of medicine.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of A. capillus‑veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallisation by in vitro
study. Materials and Methods: The study includes crystallization, nucleation and aggregation assay. Crystallization was induced by
addition of 50 µl of 0.1 M sodium oxalate in whole urine in the absence and the presence of extract at different concentrations (0.50 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg). The nucleation and aggregation rates were followed at 620 nm after mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate solution and in a buffered solution containing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, respectively. The rate was evaluated by comparing the slope of turbidity in the presence of extract with that of control using the spectrophotometer. Crystals in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Results and Conclusion: Extract of the test drug inhibited the crystallization in solution; less and smaller particles were observed in the presence of extract. These results were further confirmed in the nucleation assay, though the rate of nucleation was not inhibited but number of crystals was found to be decreased. The test drug also inhibited crystal aggregation. It can be concluded therefore, that the test drug possesses significant antilithiasic activity.
Key words: Calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro, lithotriptic activity, unani medicine, urolithiasis

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