Phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and color content of different colored fruits of Capsicum species cultivars

Keithellakpam Sanatombi

Abstract


Introduction: Peppers have been recognized as an excellent source of antioxidant constituents with diverse medicinal functions. Maturation stages, genotypes, and different drying conditions lead to changes in phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity of peppers. It is, therefore, a vital importance to study the changes in the content of color, phytochemicals, capsaicinoids, and antioxidants level of peppers, as influenced by different genotypes, their maturity stages, and drying processes. Materials and Methods: In the present work, efforts were made to evaluate the color, capsaicinoids content, phenolics, and flavonoids contents as well as antioxidant capacity in traditionally dried mature fruits and in oven-dried different colored fruits of Capsicum species, namely, Capsicum annuum L. (cvs “Meiteimorok” and “Sirarakhong morok”), Capsicum frutescens L. (cvs “Uchithi” and “Mashingkha”), and Capsicum chinense Jacq. (cvs “Umorok” and “Chiengpi”). Results and Discussion: The amount of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity, and extractable color measured in the units of the American Spice Trade Association varied significantly in the different genotypes and also under different drying conditions and in differently colored stages. Traditionally dried samples, in general, showed higher content of phenolics, flavonoids, and capsaicinoids in all the cultivars whereas the color content and antioxidant activity were found to be higher in oven-dried samples. With maturation, most of the cultivars showed an increasing trend with regard to color content and the phenolics, flavonoids, and capsaicinoids contents. However, the antioxidant activity decreased with increased maturity stages of the samples. Conclusion: Thus, this study signifies the role of genotype, maturity stage, and drying methods in determining the color content, antioxidant activity, and bioactive constituents of peppers.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v15i4.3195

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