Comparative analysis of essential oils from the leaf, fruit and stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis

Adebayo A. Gbolade, Viana Tira-Picos, Joseph M. F. Nogueira, Adekunle T. Oladele


A comparative analysis of hydro-distilled essential oils of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of Harungana madagascariensis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) for the first time. Both qualitative and quantitative differences existed in the composition of the three oils which comprised mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (66.8-69.6%). b-caryophyllene (32.4% and 18.4% respectively, for leaf and fruit oils only), a-humulene (10.4%, 9.8% and 7.3% respectively for leaf, stem bark and fruit oils), germacrene D (8.7% for leaf oil only), and a-farnesene (37.4% and 10.4% respectively, for stem bark and fruit oils only) were the
predominant constituents.
Key words: Essential oil, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Harungana madagascariensis, Hypericaceae, sesquiterpenes

Full Text:



Adjanohoun E, Ahiyi MRA, Ake-Assi L, Dramane K, Elewude JA,

Fadoju SO, et al. Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia.

Contribution to Ethnobotanical and Floristic Studies in Western

Nigeria, Lagos: OAU/STRC Publications; 1991. p. 149.

Dalziel JM. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. London:

Crown Agents; 1937.

Okoli AS, Okeke MI, Iroegbu CU, Ebo PU. Antibacterial activity

of Harungana madagascariensis leaf extracts. Phytother Res


Moulari B, Lboutounne H, Chaumont JP, Guillaume Y, Millet J,

Pellequer Y. Potentiation of the bactericidal activity of Harungana

madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir. (Hypericaceae) leaf extract against

oral bacteria using poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles:

In vitro study. Acta Odontol Scand 2006;64:153-8.

Moulari B, Pellequer Y, Lboutounne H, Girard C, Chaumont JP,

Millet J, et al. Isolation and in vitro antibacterial activity of

astilbin, the bioactive fl avanone from the leaves of Harungana

madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir. (Hypericaceae). J Ethnopharmacol


Kouam SF, Ngadjui BT, Krohn K, Wafo P, Ajaz A, Choudhary MI.

Prenylated anthronoid antioxidants from the stem bark of

Harungana madagascariensis. Phytochemistry 2005;66:1174-9.

Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M,

et al. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some

antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

Phytomedicine 2000;7:31-8.

Iwalewa EO, Omisore NO, Adewunmi CO, Gbolade AA,

Ademowo OG, Nneji C, et al. Anti-protozoan activities of

Harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on trichomonads

and malaria. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;117:507-11.

Adams RP. Identifi cation of Essential Oil Components by Gas

Chromatographic/Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. USA: Carol

Stream, IL: Allured Publ. Corp; 2001.

Elufi oye TO, Agbedahunsi JM. Antimalarial activities of Tithonia

diversifolia (Asteraceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae) on

mice in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93:167-71.

Boyom FF, Fotio D, Zollo A, Agananiet H, Menut C, Bessiere JM.

Aromatic plants of Tropical Central Africa. Part XLIV. Volatile

component from Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms growing

in Cameroon. Flav Fragr J 2003;18:296-8.

Ee GCL, Seow BT, Neoh BK, Taufiq-Yap YH, Sukari MA,

Rahmani M. Larvicidal terpenoids from Polyalthia jenkensii and

Polyalthia sumatrana. J Trop Med Plants 2001;2:27-30.

Sundufu AJ, Shoushan H. Chemical composition of the essential oil

of Lantana camara L. occurring in China. Flav Fragr J 2004;19:229-32.

Esteves I, Souza IR, Rodrigues M, Cardoso LGV, Silva Santos LS,

Sertie JAA, et al. Gastric antiulcer and anti-infl ammatory activities

of the essential oil from Casearia sylvestris. Sw. J Ethnopharmacol


Hmamouchi M, Hmamouchi J, Zouhdi M. Chemical and

antimicrobial properties of essential oils of fi ve Moroccan

Pinaceae. In: Lawrence BM, editor. The antimicrobial/biological

activity of essential oils. Carol Stream: IL Allured; 2005.

p. 368- 72.

Mozuraitis R, Stranden M, Ramirez MI, Borg-Karlson A.-K,

Mustaparta H. (–)-Germacrene D increases attraction and

oviposition by the tobacco budworm moth Heliothis virescens.

Chem Senses 2002;27:505-9.



  • There are currently no refbacks.