Comparative physicochemical evaluation of a herbo‑mineral unani formulation: Kushta kharmohra

Mohd Tariq, Khaleequr Rahman, Shahid Shah Chaudhary, Mohd Zakir, Hamid Ali


Background: Kushtas are biologically nano‑crystals having size of 1‑100 nm and are respected for their instant therapeutic effect.
In classical Unani text various methods are described for the preparation of Kushta kharmohra (cowrie ash). They address different ailments but are considered to be same medicinal substance. Objective: The present study was aimed at comparative physicochemical evaluation of Kushta kharmohra prepared by different processing methods by using classical as well as modern scientific techniques. Material and Methods: After detoxification Kushta kharmohra method 1 was (KKM1) prepared on iron pan while Kushta kharmohra method 2 (KKM2) was prepared in muffle furnace and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests.
Results: Floating, fineness test were positive for both the kushtas indicated correct preparation. Bulk density (0.80 ± 0.00 and 0.93 ± 0.00 g/ml), tapped density (1.26 ± 0.00 and 1.55 ± 0.00 gm/ml), Hausner ratio (1.57 ± 0.00 and 1.67 ± 0.01), compressibility index (36.24 ± 0.14 and 40.25 ± 0.41%), loss of weight on drying (0.001 ± 0.00 and 0.0005 ± 0.00%), pH of 1% and 10% solution (8.09 ± 0.02, 8.20 ± 0.01 and 11.08 ± 0.02, 11.28 ± 0.01) total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble (94.36 ± 0.04, 63.51 ± 0.17, 81.29 ± 0.20 and 94.74 ± 0.07, 92.44 ± 0.06, 10.16 ± 0.01%) and extractive values (0.8 ± 0.03 and 2.4 ± 0.06%) were reported in KKM1 and KKM2, respectively. Conclusion: The modern parameters confirmed that there was difference between both kushtas due to different methods
of preparation. It indicates that proccessing method also imparts its effect on finished product. Different physico‑chemical properties might be the factor responsible for different indications of kushta kharmohra in different ailments.
Key words: Cowrie, Kushta, quality control, Unani

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