Comparison of antimicrobial activity of herbs & spices and their phytochemical determination

Manoj Kumar Singh, Namita Singh


The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extracts of five spices and herbs viz. Cuminum Cyminum (Family: Apiaceae), Nigella sativa (Family: Ranunculaceae), Pimpinella anisum (Family: Apiaceae), Trachyspermum copticum (Family: Umbelliferae), and rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated by agar well diffusion method against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were assessed by the diameter of zone of inhibition against test strains. The extract of N. sativa
showed the best inhibition against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The extract of Z. officinale and P. anisum showed same minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the test strains. The extract showed significant inhibitory activity against B. amyloliquefaciens, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. The extract of C. cyminum significantly inhibited S. aureus, B. amyloliquefaciens, and P. aeruginosa. The extract of T. copticum was effective against E. coli, B. amyloliquefaciens, and P. aeruginosa, while the highest MIC obtained against
S. aureus. The diameters of zone of inhibition obtained for standard antibiotics viz. ampicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline at MIC values of the extracts were compared with the crude methanolic extracts and found equally or more effective against the test strains. Phytochemical analysis showed carbohydrates, inulin, alkaloids, and glycosides in all the five extracts. Flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, reducing sugars, soluble phenols, and saponin glycosides were also detected. Steroids were absent. The organoleptic properties of the
extracts were determined. The study indicated the great potential of these extracts as effective antimicrobial agents.
Key words: Antibiotics, antimicrobial, crude methanolic extracts, inhibition, phytochemical analysis

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