Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animal models

Kalpesh Gaur, R. K. Nema, M. L. Kori, C. S. Sharma, Virendra Singh


Th e anti-infl ammatory and analgesic eff ect of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca were evaluated in experimental animals. We have determined the anti-infl ammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of dried aerial parts of Balanites aegyptiaca by oral administration at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. Th e extracts were studied for their anti-infl ammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0 and 3h after injection. Th e ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts were also evaluated
for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hot plate method and tail-fl ick method in albino rats. Th e ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, signifi cantly (P<0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by Eddy’s hot plate method and tail-fl ick method in albino mice. Th e ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts showed a greater anti-infl ammatory and analgesic eff ect comparative to the standard drugs, indomethacin and diclofenac sodium respectively. Th e present results indicated the ethanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited more signifi cant activity than petroleum ether in the treatment of pain and infl ammation.
Key words: Balanites aegyptiaca, indomethacin, infl ammation, pain, paw edema

Full Text:



Hall JB, Walker DH, Balanites aegyptiaca Del. A Monograph.

School of Agriculutural and Forest Science. Banger: University of

Wales; 1991. p. 1-12.

Mohamed AM, Wolf D, Spiess WE. Recovery and characterization

of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins: Eff ect of defatt ing,

air classiÞ cation, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on

solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin

content. Nahrung 2000;44:7-12.

Iwu MM, Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press,

Kamel MS, Ontani K, Kurokawa T, Assaf MH, El-Shannawany

MA, Ali AA, Kasai R, Ishibashi S, Tanaka O. Studies on Balanites

aegyptiaca fruits, an antidiabetic Egyptian folk medicine.

Phytochemistry 1991;31:3565-9.

Neuwinger HD, African Ethnobotony: Poisons and drugs. London:

Chapman and Hall; 1996. p. 884

Mohamed AM, Wolf W, Spiess WE. Physical, morphological and

chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatt y acid composition

of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels. Plant Foods Hum Nutr


Liu HW, Nakanishi K. The structure of Balanites: Potent

molluscides isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca. Tetrahedron


Iwu MM, Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca

Raton, FL, Jain DC, Tripathi AK. Insect feeding detergent activity

of some saponin glycosides. Phytother Res 1991;5:139-41.

Kamel MS, Ohtani K, Kurokawa T, Assaf MH, el-Shanawany MA,

Ali AA, et al. Studies on Balanites aegyptiaca fruits: An antidiabetic

Egyptian folk medicine. Chem Pharm Bull 1991;31:1229-33.

Ibrahim AM. Anthelmintic activity of some Sudanese medicinal

plants. Phytother Res 1992;6:155-7.

Rao MV, Shah KD, Rajani M. Contraceptive effi cacy of Balanites

roxburghii pericarp extract in male mice (Mus musculus).

Phytother Res 1997;11:469-71.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants, 3. Allahabad:

International Book Distributors; 1996. p. 1935.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal

Plants, 1. New Delhi: CSIR Publication; 1956. p. 32.

The useful Plants of India. Vol. 213. New Delhi: CSIR Publication;

p. 270.

Sarker SD, Bartholomew B, Nash RJ. Alkaloids from Balanites

Aegyptiaca. Fitoterapia 2000;71:328-30.

Pett it GR, Doubek DL, Herald DL, Numata A, Takahasi C, Fujiki

R, et al. Isolation and structure of cytostatic saponins from

the African medicinal plant Balanites aegyptiaca. J Nat Prods


Hosny M, Khalifa T, Calis I, Wrigth AD, Sticher O. Balanitoside:

A furostanol glycoside and 6-methyl-diosgenin from Balanites

aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry 1992;31:3565-9.

Kamel MS. A furostanol saponin from fruits of Balanites

aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry 1998;48:755-7.

Farid H, Haslinger E, Kunert O. New Glycosydes from Balanites

aegyptiaca. Helvetica Chim Acta 2002;85:1019-26.

Venkatesa Perumal R, Adiraj M, Shanmuga Pandiyan P. Synthesis,

analgesic and anti-inß ammatory evaluation of substituted 4-

piperidones. Indian Drugs 2001;38:156.

Turner RA, Screening methods in pharmacology. New York:

Academic Press; 1965. p. 100.

Brooks PM, Day RO. Nonsteroidal anti-inß ammatory drugs:

Diff erence and similarities. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1716-25.

Vane J, Booting R. Inß ammation and the mechanism of action of

anti-inß ammatory drugs. FASEB J 1987;1:89-96.

Kavimani S, Mounissamy VM, Gunasegaran R, Analgesic and antiin

ß ammatory activities of Hispidulir isolated from Helichrysum

bracteatum. Indian Drugs 2000;37:582.

Nivsarkar M, Mukherjee M, Patel M, Padh H, Bapu C. Launaea

nudicaulis leaf juice exhibits anti-inß ammatory action in acute and

chronic inß ammation models in rats. Indian Drugs 2002;39:290.

Larsen GL, Hanson PM. Mediators of inß ammation. Ann Rev

Immunol 1983;1:335-59.

Vaidya VP, Padmashali B, Vagdevi HM, Satyanarayana

ND. Antifertility Efficacy of the Plant Balanites Roxburghii

(Balanitaceae) in Female Rats. Indian J Pharma Sci 2006;347-51.

Hossinzadeh H, Ramezani M, Fedishei M, Mahmoudi M.

Antinociceptive, anti-inß ammatory and acute toxicity eff ects

of zhumeria majdae extracts in mice and rats. Phytomedicine


Ramaswamy S, Pillai NP, Gopalkrishnan V, Parmar NS, Ghosh MN.

Analgesic eff ect of O-(β-hydroxyethyl) rutoside in mice. Indian J

Exp Biol 1985;23:219.

Alcaraz MJ, Jimenez MI. Flavonoids as anti-inß ammatory agents.

Fitoterapia 1988;59:25.



  • There are currently no refbacks.