Exploring the ayurvedic drug: Murva for anti-diabetic potential

Varsha Tiwari

Abstract


Background: Bauhinia tomentosa is a well-known medicinal plant considered under the Ayurvedic drug as “Murva”. Murva is used in the treatment various diseases such as intermittent fever, pain, etc., including hyperglycemia. Objectives: In continuation of our research, the present study reports the fingerprinting, anti-diabetic and pharmacognostical profile of B. tomentosa root. Materials and Methods: Aqueous and methanol extracts were screened for the acute toxicity studies, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced anti-diabetic screening. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by the single i.p. administration of STZ at the dose of 65 mg/kg and was confirmed after 48 h of STZ administration. Blood glucose levels were monitored in normal and diabetic rats at regular intervals of 0,7,14, and 21 days throughout treatment duration. Other parameters such as body weight, food and water intake, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very LDL (VLDL) were also be evaluated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance TLC (HPTLC) studies were carried out on extracts to identify the major phytoconstituents. Pharmacognostical analysis of root powder was performed by microscopic, physicochemical, and preliminary phytochemical examination. Results: Acute toxicity studies of extracts showed that both (methanol, aqueous) the extracts were found to be safe up to 3000 mg/kg bw. Methanol and aqueous extract were found to possess statistically significant (P < 0.001) decrease in fasting blood glucose at high dose (400 mg/kg) after 90 min of treatment, whereas low doses (200 mg/kg) of both the extracts were failed to show the statistically significant effect in oral GTT. Treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats with the methanol and aqueous extract (200,400 mg/kg) showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in fasting BGL of the diabetic rats on prolonged treatment when compared with that of control as well as the reference drug, glibenclamide. Fingerprinting analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of 7-hydroxy flavones and marmesin and flavonoid 2 with the Rf corresponding to 0.42, 0.49, and 0.55, respectively may be responsible for the observed anti-diabetic effect. Conclusion: Murva is used as an efficient medication for the treatment of various diseases in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present study reestablishes the plant as the effective medication for the management of diabetes. Further, HPTLC analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents, which are effective anti-oxidant, proves that it may be beneficial for the prevention of macro- and micro-vascular complications of chronic disease diabetes. Although, more advanced studies are required for elucidating the mechanism of action as well ensuring its effect in higher animals.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v10i04.781

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