Comparative elemental analysis of Kushtae Sadaf, a Unani formulation

Shariq Shamsi


Background: Kushta is one of the most important dosage forms in the Unani system of medicine. Kushtae Sadaf is rich in calcium, iron, and copper, and it is used in the treatment of so many systemic disorders such as cardiac problem, sexual disability, and renal disorder. Number of Unani pharmaceutical companies manufactures Kushtae Sadaf. Preparation of Kushta is a little bit difficult and if it is not prepared under keen observation, it may be harmful to the patients instead of providing relief. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a pharmacopeial Unani formulation namely Kushtae Sadaf was under taken evaluated to identify the elements present in Kushtae Sadaf prepared by two different methods. One market sample was also evaluated for same elements along with two in-house prepared samples. Results: All the three samples were subjected to elemental analysis, and the results were found to be as follow. Calcium was found to be more in Kushtae Sadaf Furnace Method (KSFM) which was 47.79%, whereas it was 44.52% and 42.19% in Kushtae Sadaf Classical Method (KSCM) and Kushtae Sadaf Market Sample (KSMS), respectively. Iron was found to be 235.8 ppm, 294 ppm, and 998.1 ppm in KSCM, KSFM, and KSMS, respectively. Copper was found to be <0.1 ppm, 2.98 ppm, and 1 ppm in KSCM, KSFM, and KSMS, respectively. Bromide was found to be 10 ppm and 5.3 ppm in KSCM and KSFM, respectively, and it was not detected in KSMS. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic) were found to be below the permissible limits given by the WHO in KSCM, whereas in KSFM, lead was found to be 28.7 ppm which is above permissible limit. In KSMS, two heavy metals namely mercury and arsenic were found to be 112 ppm and 12.3 ppm, respectively, which is above permissible limits and other two heavy metals were found to be below the permissible limit namely cadmium and lead.

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