Antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Gmelina arborea roxb fruit extracts

Bhabani Shankar Nayak, P. Ellaiah, Subas C. Dinda


Background: The plant Gmelina arborea has been traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes like anthelmintic,
diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic. Aim: The present study is an attempt to explore the antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of different extracts of fruits of plant G. arborea using ethanol, ethyl acetate, n‑butanol and petroleum ether as solvents. Materials and Methods: A single dose (1000 μg/ml) of extract was evaluated for their antibacterial activities on human pathogens like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In‑vitro antioxidant activity of G. arborea fruits was determined by 1, 1‑diphenyl‑2‑picrylhydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Ascorbic acid was used as standard and positive control for both the analyses. The antidiabetic activity of above extracts was evaluated in alloxan induced
diabetic model of Wistar rats. Statistical Analysis: All data are verified for statistically significant by using one way ANOVA at 1%
level of significance (P < 0.01). Results: Only ethanol extract showed significant antibacterial activity against all pathogens and the activities were compared with the standard drug, streptomycin. The n‑butanol extract did not show antibacterial activity against any pathogens, whereas ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts showed inhibitory action against P. aeruginosa. The extracts showed significant antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner. The ethanol extract showed good antioxidant activity when compared to the other three extracts. All the extracts were able to reduce sugar level in blood. Ethanol extract was found to have good antidiabetic activity in comparison to other extracts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extracts of G. arborea possess
antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.
Key words: Antibacterial, DPPH and alloxan, gmelina arborea, scavenging, streptomycin, verbenaceae

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