Pharmacognostical and physico-chemical standardization on the leaves of Ziziphus oenoplia

M. Lalitha Eswari, R. Vijaya Bharathi, N. Jayshree


Background: Ziziphus oenoplia is a shrub belonging to the family of Rhamnaceae. It is commonly known as Jackal jujube in English, Surai izlanthai in Tamil and Izlanthai, Makkai in Hindi. In the present era, adulteration and substitution has become a major problem due to unavailability of standards relating to the genuineness of the herbal drugs. The WHO has emphasised the need to ensure quality control of herbal products by using modern techniques.

Aim: Therefore, an establishment of pharmacognostical and physicochemical standards on identification, quality and purity of the Ziziphus oenoplia is required. Materials and Methods: Microscopical studies were done by using trinocular microscope. Physicochemical properties including total ash, water‑soluble ash, acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash and extractive value using various solvents, loss on drying, swelling and foaming index were determined.

Results: In the microscopic study the leaf is dorsiventral in shape and shows fibre sheath, druses of calcium oxalate crystals, uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes and anisocytic stomata. The stomatal number, stomatal index, vein islet and veinlet termination number were found to be 130/sqmm, 70/sqmm, 75/sqmm and 41/sqmm, respectively. Linear measurements of trichomes were also determined.Total ash value, acid‑insoluble ash, water‑soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol‑soluble extractive value, water‑soluble extractive value,
loss on drying, swelling index and foaming index were found to be 6.68% w/w, 2.34% w/w, 1.25% w/w, 10.57% w/w, 11.8% w/w,
6.2% w/w, 6% w/w, 8 ml/gm and less than 100, respectively. Conclusion: The information generated by this study will establish a proper identification and authentication of the leaf of Ziziphus oenoplia by future investigators.
Key words: Pharmacognostical, physico‑chemical, Ziziphus oenoplia

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