Development and evaluation of anti‑inflammatory ointment using aqueous extract of Coccinia grandis L.

Dr. Saraswathy Nachimuthu

Abstract


Background: According to global burden of disease study that was measured in disability-adjusted life years, skin diseases contribute to 1.79% of the global burden when compared to other serious diseases. Coccinia grandis (C.G.) is used in folk medicine to treat various skin disorders and diseases. The present study was carried to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of C.G. and to formulate an ointment to treat the skin inflammation. Materials and Methods: The aqueous leaf extract of this plant was assessed for their in vitro antioxidant by 2, 2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. The ointment formulations containing extract of the above-mentioned herb were formulated and their physical parameters such as color, odor, pH, spreadability, consistency, diffusion, solubility, washability, and stability were evaluated. Results: The membrane stabilization anti-inflammatory test showed that the aqueous leaf extract exhibited similar membrane stabilizing activity of 90.14 ± 0.942% compared to that of standard indomethacin which exhibited 93.63 ± 0.910% at 10 mg/ml concentration, respectively. Conclusion: The physical evaluation of ointment indicated that the formulation C.G IV showed better suitability than other formulations and their effectiveness should be explored further in harnessing the potential of the plant for treating skin inflammatory diseases. Clinical Impact: At present, there is no effective cure for skin inflammatory diseases, but it can be controlled by various treatments, namely topical, drugs, and biological. However, most of these therapies are of higher cost, causing a number of side effects that include organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, and immunosuppression and are effective only for short term. The present study shows that the C.G. ointment will be useful for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i03.2025

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