Evaluation of solanaceous crops source material for resistance to abiotic factors

Nadezhda V. Kotsareva

Abstract


Aim: The results of the evaluation of the solanaceous crops source material for resistance to abiotic factors are presented. A number of studies are conducted on the development and improvement of rapid methods for assessing the source material: laboratory-based method for evaluation of solanaceous crops’ cold resistance and salinity tolerance due to changes of the intensity of seeds germination under the effect of unfavorable factors (reduced positive temperatures and salinization) and for evaluation of drought resistance due to water-retaining capacity and water restoring ability of tomato leaves. Materials and Methods: The basis of the method for establishing salt tolerance is standard method for determining the germination, where along with the germination of seeds in the water, the option of cultivation of samples on selective backgrounds (with high levels of salinity) their parallel germination in saline solutions is introduced. To determine cold resistance was used high-quality collection of seeds of sweet pepper, bitter pepper, and eggplant with a high germination, same year, and place of reproduction. Results and Discussion: The results of determination of cold resistance of collection samples in the laboratory confirmed the existence of correlation dependence of “cold resistance” and “earliness” signs for sweet pepper and eggplant (r = −0.58 ± 0.15 and r = −0.62 ± 0.14, respectively) as well as signs of “cold resistance” and “the presence of anthocyanin coloration” for eggplant (r = −0.65 ± 0.15). While creating a valuable breeding material of tomato to a certain extent, the research on water holding and water recovery capacity of leaves during their most sensitivity to lack of water in the flowering stage can be used. It is found that the majority of varieties have quite high (80.1-85.0%) level of water content in the leaves. The tendency of the maximum water content in the leaves of the well-leafy varieties, which were withdrawn in the Southern Regions, is noted. A significant difference in the parameters of drought resistance of tomato plants, the maximum expression of the indicator - 83.9 ± 1.7, the minimum - 56.1 ± 1.3 is found. Indicators of high drought tolerance were detected in breeding varieties of Moldova, Southern Russia, and Southern Ukraine.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1155

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