Assessment of physicochemical and bacteriological analysis of the hot water spring, Al Aridhah, Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

Dr. Mohammad Firoz Alam


Introduction: Balneotherapy is the medicinal use of thermal water from a natural spring. Saudi Arabia has blessed with many hot water springs (HWSs) across the country. One among them is Al Aridhah, situated in Jazan Province. The present work is focused on analyzing physicochemical and bacteriological load in HWS samples. Materials and Methods: The physicochemical parameters of HWS were determined by performing dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, oxidative reduction potential (ORP), zeta potential (ZP), PDI, and % PDI before and after open-air exposure of HWS for 2 weeks. The bacteriological load of HWS was analyzed by determining colony-forming unit on the agar plates before and after open-air exposure. Results: The level of DO, pH, TDS, conductivity, ORP, ZP, PDI, % PDI, and the bacteriological load was increased after exposure to open air for 2 weeks. The present study suggested that physicochemical parameters were suitable except TDS level. The HWS showed a higher TDS level that exceeds the World Health Organization standard limitation values, indicating that the water is not suitable for drinking purposes. However, HWS can be used for medicinal purposes externally. Conclusion: Fresh hot water spring of Al Aridhah showed excellent physicochemical characterization except TDS and it was found to contain insignificant bacterial contamination.

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