In vitro inhibitory potentials of crude plant extracts on multidrug resistant bacterial species from infected human wounds

Yetunde A. Ekanola, Adenike A. O. Ogunshe, Temitope T. Bajela, Maria A. Ajimosun, A. W. Okeowo


Background: Scientific data on usage of plants to promote wound healing is exclusively scare in Nigeria. AIM: The aim of this
study was to determine in vitro inhibitory potentials of crude extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale)
on multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from deep and superficial human wounds. Materials and Methods: Using agar
disc‑ and modified agar well‑diffusion methods, 87 wound‑borne bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa were screened for in vitro susceptibility to 15 commonly‑available antibiotic discs, 18 antibiotic drugs
and three plant extracts. Results: Staph. aureus strains exhibited 52.5‑97.4% resistance to antibiotic (discs), with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) of 25.0 ‑100%. Between 39.1 and 95.7% of Proteus mirabilis strains resisted the antibiotics (discs), while MAR was 37.5‑100%. Resistance rates displayed by Ps. aeruginosa strains were 61.5‑100% with MAR of 50.0‑100%. Overall antibiotic resistance patterns of respective bacterial species recorded for the antibiotic drugs were Staph. aureus (11.1‑83.3%), Pr. mirabilis (16.7‑77.8%) and Ps. aeruginosa (16.7‑50.0%) and the most‑resisted antibiotic drugs were axacef (55.3‑82.6%), septrin (84.2‑92.3%), primpex (78.3‑84.6%),
mediphenicol (63.2‑73.1%) and augmentin 1 (43.2‑76.9%). All the multidrug resistant wound‑borne bacterial strains exhibited minimal to moderate susceptibility towards crude extracts of garlic (17.4‑34.6%) and ginger (57.7‑60.8%). Conclusion: Human wound‑borne bacterial strains, which were multi‑resistant to commonly available antibiotics (discs/drugs) were minimally or moderately susceptible to crude extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale), which can be of clinical importance as herbal therapy in wound dressings or other forms of wound treatments.
Key words: Antibiotic resistance, herbal wound treatment, skin wounds, wound care, wound dressing

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