Anticonvulsant potential of Anisomeles malabarica leaves against experimentally induced convulsions in rats

Ishpinder Singh, Manjit Singh, Tajinder Singh, Krishna-Reddy V. Bijjem, Ajudhia N. Kalia


Anisomeles malabarica (AM) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic perennial herb, the leaves of which are traditionally used to treat
convulsions in southern India. The present study has been designed to investigate the anticonvulsant potential of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaves of AM against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions. All the three extracts were administered (i.e. 100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally. Diazepam and phenytoin (1 mg/kg, i.p. and 25 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. High doses (400 mg/kg, p.o.) of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts both significantly decreased the extent of MES- and PTZ-induced convulsions. On the other hand, ethyl acetate extract at lowest and medium selected doses (i.e. 100 mg/kg, p.o. and 200 mg/kg, p.o., respectively, for 7 days) had also significantly
attenuated PTZ-induced convulsions. However, methanol extract at any of the doses used (i.e. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not show any significant effect on PTZ- and MES-induced convulsions. None of the extracts at doses used in the present study have altered locomotor activity and motor coordination. Hence, it may be concluded that chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of AMleaves are effective against PTZ- and MES induced-convulsions in rats.
Key words: Anisomeles malabarica leaves, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract, convulsions, maximal electroshock,

Full Text:



Dhanabal SP, Paramakrishnan N, Manimaran S, Suresh B.

Anticonvulsant potential of essential oil of Artemisia abrotanum.

Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 2007;1:112-6.

de Sousa DP, Goncalves JC, Quintans-Júnior L, Cruz JS, Araújo

DA, de Almeida RN. Study of anticonvulsant effect of citronellol,

a monoterpene alcohol, in rodents. Neurosci Lett 2006;401:231-5.

Sonavane GS, Palekar RC, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. Anticonvulsant

and behavioural actions of Myristica fragrans seeds. Indian J

Pharmacol 2002;34:332-8.

Gupta AK, Tandon N. Anisomeles malabarica. In: Gupta AK,

Tandon N, editors. Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants. New

Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR); 2004. p. 343-9.

Ramachandran K. Anisomeles malabarica. In: Ramachandran K,

editor. The Wealth of India: A dictionary of Indian Raw Materials

and Industrial Products. New Delhi: Publications and Information

Directorate, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR);

p. 278.

Apparananthem T, Chelladurai V, Subramanian V. Some tribal folk

medicines of point calimere (Kodikkarai) in Tamil Nadu. Bull Med

Ethnobot Res 1982;3:173-7.

Tripathi YC, Prabhu VV, Pal RS, Mishra RN. Medicinal plants

of Rajasthan in Indian system of medicine. Anc Sci Life 1996;15:


Reddy MB, Reddy KR, Reddy MN. Ethnobotany of Cuddapah

district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian J Pharmacog 1991;29:


Harborne JB. Triterpenes. In: Harborne JB, editor. Phytochemical

methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd ed.

London: Chapman and Hall publishers; 1998. p. 77-8.

Ikhiri K, Boureima D, Dan-Kouloudo D. Chemical screening of

medicinal plants used in traditional pharmacopoeia of Niger. Intl

J Pharmacog 1992;30:251-62.

Kulkarni SK. Actions of clonidine on convulsions and behaviour.

Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1981;252:124-32.

Krall RL, Penry JK, White BG, Kupferberg HJ, Swinyard EA.

Antiepileptic drug development 2. Anticonvulsant drug screening.

Epilepsia 1978;19:409-28.

Misra AK, Dandiya PC, Kulkarni SK. Anticonvulsant activity of

some trimethoxybenzylidene-2-thiohydantoin derivatives. Indian

J Pharmacol 1973;5:449-50.

Rao VS, Rao A, Karanth KS. Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity

profile of Nardostachys jatamansi in rats. J Ethnopharmacol


Obay BD, Tasdemir E, Tümer C, Bilgin HM, Sermet A. Antiepileptic

effects of ghrelin on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

Peptides 2007;28:1214-9.

Contreras CM, Chacon L, Enriquez RG. Anticonvulsant properties

of Ipomoea stans. Phytomed 1996;3:41-4.

Felipe FC, Filho JT, Souza LE, Silveira JA, Uchoa DE, Silveira

ER, et al. Piplartine an amide alkaloid from Piper tuberculatum,

presents anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in mice. Phytomed


Löscher W, Hönack D, Fassbender CP, Nolting B. The role of

technical, biological and pharmacological factors in the laboratory

evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs III. Pentylenetetrazole seizure

models. Epilepsy Res 1991b;8:171-89.

Adzu B, Amos S, Dzarma S, Wambebe C, Gamaniel K. Effect of

zizyphus spina-christi wild on the central nervous system in mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:13-6.

Kulkarni SK, Dandiya PC. Influence of intraventricular

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f n o r e p i n e p h r i n e , d o p a m i n e a n d

-hydroxytrytamine on motor activity of rats. Indian J Med Res


Schachter SC. Tiagabine monotherapy in the treatment of partial

epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995;36:S2-6.

White HS. New mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs. In: Porter R,

Chadwick D, editors. Epilepsies II. Boston: Butterworth

Heinemann; 1997. p. 1-30.

Oliveira FA, De Almeida RN, Sousa MF, Barbosa-Filho JM,

Diniz SA, De Medeiros IA. Anticonvulsant properties of

N-salicyloyltryptamine in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav


Nsour WM, Lau CB, Wong IC. Review on phytotherapy in epilepsy.

Seizure 2000;9:96-107.

Meldrum BS. GABA agonists as antiepileptic agents. Adv Biochem

Psychopharmacol 1981;26:207-17.

Westmoreland BF, Benarroch EE, Dube JR, Regan TJ, Sandok BA.

Medicinal neurosciences. Rochester: Margo Foundation; 1994. p.


Nevins ME, Arnolde SM. A comparison of the anticonvulsant

effects of competitive and non-competitive antagonists of the

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Brain Res 1989;503:1-4.

Velisek L, Kusa R, Kulovana M, Mares P. Excitatory amino acid

antagonists and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures during

ontogenesis. The effects of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate. Life

Sci 1990;46:1349-57.

Ankica J, Marina J, Milica N, Maksimovic M, Boskovic B.

Nitric oxide (NO) and an NMDA receptor antagonist in

pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. Acta Veterinaria

(Beograd) 2003;53:103-12.

Aricioglu F, Kan B, Yillar O, Korcegez E, Berkman K. Effect of

agmatine on electrically and chemically induced seizures in mice.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003;1009:141-6.

Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK. Amino acid transmitters.

In: Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK, editors. Pharmacology.

Noida: International Print-O-Pac Limited; 2006. p. 479-91.

Barreto PS, Lemos T, Morato GS. NMDA-receptor antagonists

block the development of rapid tolerance to ethanol in mice. Addict

Biol 2006;3:55-64.

Dar MS. Mouse cerebellar adenosine-glutamate interactions and

modulation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Alcohol

Clin Exp Res 2002;26:1395-403.

Löscher W. Pharmacology of glutamate receptor antagonists in

the kindling model of epilepsy. Prog Neurobiol 1998;54:721-41.

Turski L, Schwarz M, Sontag KH. Interaction between phenytoin

and diazeoam in mutant Han-Wistar rats with progressive spastic

paresis. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1982;321:48-51.

Hosseinzadeh H, Parvaedeh S. Anticonvulsant effects of

thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in

mice. Phytomed 2004;11:56-64.

Chauhan AK, Dobhal MP, Joshio BC. A review of medicinal plant

showing anticonvulsant activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1988;22:


Brum LF, Elisabetsky E, Souza D. Effects of linaloolon [(3)

H] MK801 and [3(3)H] muscimol binding in mouse cortical

membranes. Phytother Res 2001;15:422-5.

Meckes M, Clazado F, Tortoreillo J, Gonzalez H, Martinez

M. Terpenoid isolated from Psidium guajava hexane extract

with depressant activity on central nervous system. Phyto Res


Fernández SP, Wasowski C, Loscalzo LM, Granger RE, Johnston

GA, Paladini AC, et al. Central nervous system depressant action

of flavonoid glycosides. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;539:168-76.



  • There are currently no refbacks.