Antifertility activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Piper betle petiole on female Wistar rats

Sunil Kumar Shah


Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifertility activity of extracts of Piper betle petiole on female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extract of petiole of P. betle was study antifertility activity in proven fertile female Wistar rats at the doses 500 mg/kg b.wt./day for 30 days. Different parameters were studied in female Wistar rats, including phytochemical, effect of the reproductive outcome, anti-implantation, abortifacient, and estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, were observed. Results: P. betle showed positive test for alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenes, carbohydrates, and tannins. The extract of P. betle has antifertility effect the control rats showed good number of litters. Treatment of animal with different extracts resulted a significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Antifertility activity 51% and 37.2% was exhibited by alcoholic extract P. betle (APB) and water extract P. betle (WPB), respectively. After 21 days of the extracts free period, the antifertility effect of the extracts was reversed. The extract treatment with APB, an increase in the percentage of resorption index indicates the failure in development of embryo. The mean percentage of anti-implantation and abortifacient was found to be highest for APB - 38.45%, WPB - 13.62%, and APB - 28.96%, WPB - 26.22%, respectively. The decrement in implantation caused by the extracts may be due to estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity. However, along with standard APB exhibiting more potent estrogenic and less potent antiestrogenic when compared with standard. Conclusion: Female antifertility agents should include acceptability, safety, and efficacy during and after the treatment. The above results revealed the potential, reversible female antifertility effect of APB.

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