Formulation and evaluation of Cassia auriculata flower extract-loaded phytosomal cream to enhance the topical bioavailability

Dr. S. M. Habibur Rahman


Introduction: Cassia auriculata flower has various secondary metabolites that are used to treat various diseases, such as bacterial infections. The use of phytophospholipids complexes has been suggested to improve the bioavailability of plant phytoconstituents. Plant active constituent incorporated into phytosome; it efficiently delivers the plant active constituents and provides better absorption for topical administration. Aim: This study aims to formulate the phytosomal nanoparticle containing C. auriculata flower extract that can increase the topical permeability and absorption of plant compounds. Materials and Methods: The phytosomal nanoparticle was prepared by rotary evaporation technique using soy lecithin as a phospholipid and acetone as solvent. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and antibacterial activity were studied in detail. The phytosome surface morphology was determined by an atomic force microscope. Flower extract-loaded phytosomal dispersion was formulated into cream using beeswax, liquid paraffin, and borax to obtain the cream with a suitable physical appearance and organoleptic characteristics. Results: Phytosome was prepared and evaluated. It showed that the particle size of the formulated phytosome was 215 nm. The zeta potential was found to have been −2.67, and the %E.E was found to have been 95 ± 2%. Phytosomal cream was prepared by emulsification technique and its physical properties are analyzed, it was present within the acceptable limits. Ethanol extract of C. auriculata flower showed a maximum zone of inhibition of 15.4 ± 0.40 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.86 ± 78 mm), and Escherichia coli (11.16 ± 0.60 mm). In vitro drug release of the formulated phytosome 92.33 ± 1.51 released in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at the end of 6 h. Ex vivo studies were performed on both phytosome-loaded cream and plain extract-loaded cream and compared with plain extract-loaded cream, which shows that phytosome-loaded cream had a better release and topical absorption. Conclusion: Studies on phytosome nanoparticles revealed that they were in the nanometer range and could provide the ideal topical absorption of poorly soluble plant active constituents. The phytosome cream showed better percutaneous absorption when compared with conventional plain extract-loaded cream.

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