In vitro evaluation of crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus for potential antibacterial activity

Pankaj Goyal, Arjun Khanna, Abhishek Chauhan, Garima Chauhan, Purshotam Kaushik

Abstract


Context: Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian Sanskrit literature. Th e plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals since most of the bacterial pathogens are developing resistance against currently available antibiotics.
Aims: To determine the antibacterial activity of crude extracts from diff erent parts of Catharanthus roseus against several bacterial species of clinical signifi cance.
Materials and Methods: Extraction of each plant part in appropriate solvent followed by evaluation of antibacterial activity by agar well diff usion assay against a total of six bacterial stains. Further, minimum inhibitory concentration(s) was evaluated for active crude extracts.
Results: Data indicated that the pattern of inhibition depends largely upon the extraction procedure, the plant part used for extraction, state of plant part (fresh or dry), solvent used for extraction and the microorganism tested. Dry powder extracts of all plant parts demonstrated more antibacterial activity than extracts prepared from fresh parts. Furthermore, extracts prepared from leaves were shown to have better effi cacy than stem, root, and fl ower extracts. Organic extracts provided more potent antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Among all the extracts, the ethanolic extract was found to be most active against almost all the bacterial
species tested. Hot water and cold water extracts were completely inactive. Gram-positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria.
Conclusions: Th e study promises an interesting future for designing potentially active antibacterial agents from Catharanthus roseus.
Key words: Agar well diff usion assay, antibacterial activity, Ayurveda, Catharanthus roseus, minimum inhibitory concentration,
periwinkle

Full Text:

PDF

References


Russell AD. Antibiotic and biocide resistance in bacteria:

Introduction. J Appl Microbiol Symp Suppl 2002;92:1S-3S.

Gootz TD. Discovery and development of new antimicrobial

agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1990;3:13-31.

Nisbet LJ, Moore M. Will natural products remain an important

source of drug research for the future? Curr Opin Biotechnol

;8:708-12.

Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. Natural products as sources

of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. J Nat Prod 2003;6:

-37.

Koehn FE, Carter GT. The evolving role of natural products in

drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2005;4:206-20.

Kong JM, Goh NK, Chia LS, Chia TF. Recent Advances in traditional

plant drugs and orchids. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2003;24:7-21.

Chin Y, Balunas MJ, Chai HB, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from

natural sources. AAPS J 2006;8:E239-53.

Kaushik P, Dhiman AK. Medicinal Plants and Raw Drugs of India.

Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh. Dehradun: New Cannaught

Place; 2000. p. XII+623 (with colour plates).

Kaushik P. Indigenous Medicinal Plants including Microbes and

Fungi. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers;

p. VIII+344.

El-Sayed A, Cordell GA. Catharanthamine: A new antitumor

bisindole alkaloid from Catharanthus roseus. J Nat Prod 1981;44:

-93.

Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. An antibiotic assay by the agar-well

diff usion method. Acta Biologiae et Medecine Experimentalis

;15:113-5.

NCCLS-National Committ ee for Clinical Laboratory Standards:

Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria

that grow aerobically. Approved Standards M7-A4, Wayne,

Pa: 1997.

Kaushik P, Singh Y. Antibacterial activity of extract of rhizome of

Curcuma longa (turmeric). J Indian Bot Soc 2000;79:191-2.

Kaushik P, Upadhyay V, Singh P. Antibacterial potential of

bryophytes. The Botanica 2000;50:132-6.

Kizil M, Kizil G, Yavuz M, Aytekin C. Antimicrobial activity of the

tar obtained from the roots and stems of Pinus brutia. Pharma Biol

;40:135-8.

Satish S, Raveesha KA, Janardhana GR. Antibacterial activity

of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris

pathovars. Lett Appl Microbiol 1999;28:145-7.

Thongson C, Davidson PM, Mahakarnchanakul W, Weiss J.

Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted

spices. Lett Appl Microbiol 2004;39:401-6.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v2i3.27

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.