Effects of Biskhapra (Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.) leaves extract in adriamycin induced nephrotic syndrome

Md Shafat Karim, Nadeem Ashraf, Afsahul Kalam, Nasreen Jahan, M. A. Jafri, Ghufran Ahmad


Trianthema portulacastrum popularly known as Biskhapra, is a well documented drug, used for various kidney ailments, although no scientific evidence is available. The animals were divided into 7 groups of 10 animals each, i.e. plain, negative A and B, and two preand post-treated groups. Plain control treated with distilled water only and adriamycin (7.5 mg/kg) was administered to other groups. Negative A and B group were left untreated for 10 and 30 days, respectively, while pre- and post-treated groups were administered test drug in a dose of 450 and 900 mg/kg before and after the administration of adriamycin, respectively, for 20 days. Adriamycin
produces proteinuria, increases the serum cholesterol, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and decreases the serum albumin
and protein. Therefore, these parameters were taken into account along with histopathological changes in kidney. Test drug reduced the serum cholesterol, creatinine and BUN, and increased the serum albumin and protein levels. Histopathological examination revealed remarkable changes in negative control groups, which were corrected in all the test groups. Test drug has preventive as well as curative effect in adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome and is in consonance with the reports of Unani literature regarding its
use in renal disorders.
Key words: Hydroalcoholic extract, minimal change nephropathy, preventive and curative effect, unani medicine, wistar rats

Full Text:



Niaudet P. Steroid sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. In:

Anver ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, editors. Pediatric nephrology.

th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wikkins; 2004.

p. 545-73.

Behrman RE, Kligman RM, Jenson HB. Nelson Text Book of

Pediatrics. 17th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier India Private Limited; 2004.

p. 1753-7.

Constantinescu AR, Shah HB, Foote EF, Weiss LS. Predicting firstyear

relapses in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics


Bos H, Laverman GD, Henning RH, Tiebosch AT, de Jong PE,

de Zeeuw D, et al. Involvement of renal ACE activity in proteinuria

associated renal damage in untreated and treated adriamycin

nephrotic rats. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2003;4:


Vogt B, Dick B, Marti HP, Frey FJ, Frey BM. Reduced 11

β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase activity in experimental

nephritic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002;17:753-8.

Ibn Baitar, Jameul Mufradat al Advia wal Aghzia (Urdu translation

by CCRUM). Vol 2. 2nd ed. New Delhi: CCRUM, Ministry of Health

and Family Welfare; 2000. p. 82.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian

Medicinal Plant. 1st ed. New Delhi: National Institute of Science

Communication and Information Resources; 2002. p. 246.

Prajapati ND, Kumar U, Agro’s Dictionary of Medicinal Plants. 1st ed.

Jodhpur, India: Dr. Updesh Purohit for Agrobios; 2003. p. 352.

Ibn Sina, Al Qanoon Fil Tibb (Urdu translation by Kantoori GH).

Vol 2, Part 1. New Delhi: Idara Kitabus Shifa; 2007. p. 105.

Saunder AS, Reddy AR, Rajeshwar Y, Kiran G, Prasad DK,

Baburao B, et al. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Trianthema

portulacastrum in atherosclerotic diet induced renal and hepatic

changes in rats, Scholars Research Library 2010;2:540-5.

Mandal A, Karmakar R, Bandyopadhyay S, Chatterjee M.

Antihepatotoxic potential of Trianthema portulacastrum in carbon

tetrachloride induced chronic hepatocellular injury in mice:

Reflection in haematological, histological and biochemical

characteristics. Arch Pharm Res 1998;21:223-30.

Sarkar A, Pradhan S, Mukhopadhyay I, Bose SK, Roy S,

Chatterjee M. Inhibition of early DNA-damage and chromosomal

abberations by Trianthema portulacastrum L. In carbon tetrachlorideinduced

mouse liver damage. Cell Biol Int 1999;23:703-8.

Kumar G, Banu GS, Pappa PV, Sundararajan M, Pandian MR.

Hepatoprotective activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. against

paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in albino rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92:37-40.

Kumar G, Banu GS, Pandian MR. Evaluation of Antioxidant

activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Indian J Pharmacol


Banu GS, Kumar G, Murugesan AG. Ethanolic leaves extract of

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. ameliorates Aflatoxin B1 induced

hepatic damage in rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2009;24:250-6.

Vohora SB, Shah SA, Naqvi SA, Ahmad S, Khan MS. Studies on

Trianthema portulacastrum. Planta Med 1983;47:106-8.

Bertazzoli C, Chieli T, Ferni G, Ricevuti G, Solcia E. Chronic

toxicity of adriamycin: A new antineoplastic antibiotic. Toxicol

Appl Pharmacol 1972;21:287-301.

Remuzzi G, Zoja C, Remuzzi A, Rossini M, Battaglia C, Broggini M,

et al. Low protein diet prevents glomerular damage in adriamycintreated

rats. Kidney Int 1985;28:21-7.

Deschenes G, Doucet A. Collecting duct (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity

is correlated with urinary sodium excretion in rat nephrotic

syndromes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11:604-15.

Bertani T, Poggi A, Pozzoni R, Delaini F, Sacchi G, Thoua Y, et al.

Adriamycin induced nephrotic syndrome in rats: Sequence of

pathologic events. Lab Invest 1982;46:16-23.

Ghani N, Khazainul Advia. 1st ed. New Delhi: Idara Kitabus Shifa;

p. 371.

Freireich EJ, Gehan EA, Rall DP, Schmidt LH, Skipper HE.

Quantitative comparision of toxicity of anticancer agents in

mouse, rat, hamster, dog, monkey and man. Cancer Chemother

Rep 1966;50:219-44.

Sengottuvelu S, Srinivasan D, Duraisami R, Nandhakumar J,

Vasudevan M, Sivakumar T. Hepatoprotective activity of

Trianthema decandra on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity

in rats. Int J Green Pharm 2008;2:122-5.

Shafat MK, Kalam MA, Jahan N, Ahmad G, Jafri MA. Evaluation of

diuretic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Biskhapra (Trianthema

portulacastrum Linn.) leaves in rats, Hippocratic Journal of Unani

Medicine. Vol. 6. New Delhi: CCRUM; 2011. p. 81-8.

Tesar V, Zima T, Jirsa M Jr, Crkovská J, Stípek S, Vernerová Z,

et al., Influence of losartan and enalapril on urinary excretion of

-isoprostane in experimental nephritic syndrome. Med Sci Monit


Comporti M. Lipid peroxidation. Biopathological significance.

Mol Aspects Med 1993;14:199-207.

Krag S, Danielsen CC, Carmeliet P, Nyengaard J, Wogensen L.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene deficiency attenuates TGFbeta1-

induced kidney disease. Kidney Int 2005;68:2651-66.

Crean JK, Finlay D, Murphy M, Moss C, Godson C, Martin F, et al.

The role of p42/p44 MAPK and protein kinase B in connective

tissue growth factor induced extracellular matrix protein

production, cell migration and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement

in human mesengial cells. J Biol Chem 2002;277:44187-94.

Zima T, Tesar V, Crkovská J, Stejskalová A, Pláteník J, Temínová J,

et al. ICRF-187 (dexrazoxan) protects from adriamycininduced

nephrotic syndrome in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant


Myers CE, McGuire WP, Liss RH, Ifrim I, Grotzinger K, Young RC.

Adriamycin: The role of lipid peroxidation in cardiac toxicity and

tumour response. Science 1977;197:165-97.

Bricio T, Molina A, Egido J, Gonzalez E, Mampaso F. IL-1-like

production in adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome in the rat.

Clin Exp Immunol 1992;87:117-21.

Kabeeruddin AM, Makhzanul Mufradaat. 1st ed. New Delhi: Idara

Kitabus Shifa; 2007. p. 110.

Thomas WA, Kim DN, Lee KT, Reiner JM, Schmee J. Population

dynamics of arterial cells during atherogenesis. XIII. Mitogenic

and cytotoxic effects of a hyperlipidemic (HL) diet on cells in

advanced lesions in the abdominal aortas of swine fed an HL diet

for 270-345 days. Exp Mol Pathol 1983;39;257-70.

Shafat K, Nasreen J, Jafri MA. Physico-chemical studies of

Biskhapra (Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.) leaves. Indian J Unani

Res 2011;11:52-60.

Kokate CK. Practical pharmacognosy. 1st ed. New Delhi: Vallabh

Prakashan; 1994. p. 107.

Bhattacharjee SK. Handbook of Medicinal Plants. 4th ed. Jaipur:

Pointer Publishers; 2004. p. 353.

Sharma DK. Pharmacological properties of flavonoids including

flavonolignans integration of petrocrops with drug development

from plants. J Sci Ind Res 2006;65:477-84.

Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HP, Becker K. The biological action of

saponins in animal systems: A review. Br J Nutr 2002;88:587-605.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v5i4.223


  • There are currently no refbacks.