Pharmacognostic screening and phytochemical evaluation of Acacia leucophloea root

Sachin Jain, Praveen Sharma, Deenanath Jhade, Neeraj K. Sharma, Pritesh Paliwal, Dheeraj Ahirwar


Acacia leucophloea (Mimosoideae) is native to Southeastern Asia. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian indigenous system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization, physico-chemical evaluation of the roots of Acacia leucophloea was carried out to determine its macro-and micro-scopical characters and also some
of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acidinsoluble ash and sulphated ash values, alcohol- and water-soluble extractive values were determined for phytochemical evaluations. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, root showed cork, cortex, stellar region and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed crystal fibres, xylem fibres in bundle, phloem fibres, medullary ray, and cork cells, parenchyma cells with red cell content, tissues with abundant xylem vessels with pitted thickenings, parenchyma, and Stone cells. Total ash was approximately two times and four times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash, respectively. Ethanol soluble extractive was approximately two times higher than water soluble extractive. TLC of petroleum ether and chloroform
extract showed nine spots using benzene:methanol (19:1) and chloroform:methanol (19:1) respectively while ethanol extract showed four spots using ethyl acetate. Phytochemically, root exhibited alkaloids, terpenes, flavanoids and tannins.
Key words: Acacia leucophloea, macroscopy, microscopy, phytoconstituents, Rf (retention factors)

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