Pharmacognostic evaluation and development of quality standards of Ficus carica (Moraceae) L. Leaves

Om Prakash Agrawal


Background: Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. It has been cultivated by humans for over 5000 years. In India, it is cultivated in many parts of North India for its fruits. Aim: Due to the useful effect of leaves in skin diseases, pharmacognostical standardization of F. carica leaves was carried out. Material and Methods: Morphological examination showed that leaves are long, palmate-shaped, and dark green in color. The leaves powder had characteristic odor and taste. Transverse section of leaves showed upper and lower epidermis with covering and glandular trichomes, and midrib showed arc-shaped vascular bundle. Results: Successive extractive value was highest (23.60%) in case of aqueous extract. Mean ash values (%) were 23.04 (total), 6.48 (acid insoluble), and 12.69 (water soluble). Loss on drying was 5.9107%. Resin content was found 1.33%. Phytochemical screening of leaves powder showed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, steroids, tannin, resin, and acidic compounds. Conclusion: Further work is needed to isolate, characterize, and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques.

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