In vitro anticoagulant activity of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts on normal healthy blood plasma

S. Asha


Aim: Hemostasis is the process of formation of clots within the walls of damaged blood vessels. To prevent abnormal bleeding and to maintain intravascular blood in a fluid state, in this study we aimed to evaluate the possible anticoagulant effect of leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera. Materials and Methods: The aqueous, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate extracts of N. nucifera at different concentrations were tested for in vitro prothrombin time (PT) test. The in vitro anticoagulant effects of different extracts of N. nucifera in different concentrations 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.062 g/ml were examined using plasma, collected from blood samples of normal individuals by measuring PT. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and saline in distilled water were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. The extract plasma was subjected to anticoagulation activity and was compared with EDTA-plasma and saline plasma. Results: The methanol leaf extract of N. nucifera was found to inhibit coagulation process in 60 min: 3 s in 0.5 g/ml. The time taken for clotting at the concentration of 0.5 g/methanol leaf extract showed the moderate effect of 10 min:20 s with respect to control while ethyl acetate extract showed the least effect of 8 min: 23 s compared to control. Overall, the concentration of 0.5 g/ml of leaf extract showed a maximum effect in all the tested extracts with respect to other concentrations 0.25, 0.125, and 0.062 g/ml. Thus, N. nucifera methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate leaf extract in different concentrations inhibits clot formation and increases the PT in a dose-dependent manner. The observed prolonged prothrombin activity could be due to the presence of certain phytochemical constituents in the crude extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids and steroid compounds in the crude extract and further, the active principles could be isolated and evaluated for clinical or physiological purposes. Conclusion: In vitro, anticoagulant activity studies results demonstrated that leaf extract N. nucifera possesses pharmacologically active anticoagulant components which could be helpful in preventing blood clotting disorders. Thus, in future N. nucifera leaf could be used as a supplementary source of natural anticoagulant.

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